book of the dead by gerald massey

Egyptian Book of the Dead and the Mysteries of Amenta (Ancient Egypt) | Gerald Massey | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit. Egyptian Book of the Dead and the Mysteries of Amenta. Finden Sie alle Bücher von Gerald Massey. Bei der Büchersuchmaschine können Sie. The Historical Jesus and the Mythical Christ: Separating Fact from Fiction. Cover · Gerald Massey. Book Tree, - Seiten.

It is the pre-Christian word of God. This we learn from the account which it gives of itself. It is attributed to Ra as the inspiring holy spirit.

Ra was the father in heaven, who has the title of Huhi, the eternal, from which we derive the Hebrew name of Ihuh. The word was given by God the father to the ever— coming son as manifestor for the father.

This was Horus, who as the coming son is lu-sa or lu-su, and, as the prince of peace, lu-em-hetep. Horus the son is the Word in person. Hence the speaker in the character of Horus says, "I utter his words - the words of Ra - to the men of the present generation, and I repeat his words to him who is deprived of breath" ch.

That is, as Horus, the sayer or logos, who utters the words of Ra the father in heaven to the living on earth, and to the breathless Manes in Amenta when he descends into Hades or the later hell to preach to the spirits in prison.

The word or the sayings thus originated with Ra the father in heaven. It had been ordained by Ra that his words, such as those that bring about " the resurrection and the glory" Rit.

I , should be written down by the divine scribe Taht- Aan, to make the word truth, and to effect the triumph of Osiris against his adversaries; and it is proclaimed in the opening chapter that this mandate has been obeyed by Taht.

The Ritual purports to contain the gnosis of salvation from the second death, together with the ways and means of attaining eternal life, as these were acted in the drama of the Osirian mysteries.

Hence the Osiris says that freedom from perdition can be assured by means of this book, in which he trusts and by which he steadfastly abides.

The object of the words of power, the magical invocations, the funeral ceremonies, the purgatorial trials, is the resurrection of the mortal to the life which is everlasting.

The opening chapter is described as the " words" which bring about the resurrection on the Mount of Glory, and the closing chapters show the deceased upon the summit of attainment.

He has joined the lords of eternity in "the circle of Osiris", and in the likeness of his own human self, the very "figure which he had on earth", but changed and glorified ch.

Therefore the most exact and comprehensive title for the Book of the Dead now put together in chapters would be "The Ritual of the Resurrection", The book of the divine words written down by Taht are in the keeping of Horus the son, who is addressed as " him who sees the father".

The Manes comes to him with his copy of the writings, by means of which he prevails on his journey through Amenta, like Pilgrim with his roll.

O keeper of the books of Taht! Here am I glorified and filled with soul and power, and provided with the writings of Taht", the secrets of which are divine for lightening the darkness of the nether earth Rit: With these the Manes is accoutred and equipped.

The Word of god personified in Horus preceded the written word of god and when the words of power were written down by Taht the scribe of truth, they were assigned to Horus as the logia of the Lord, and preserved as the precious records of him who was the word in person; first the word of power as the founder, then the word in truth or made truth, as the fulfiller.

The divine words when written constituted the scriptures, earliest of which are those ascribed to Hermes or Taht, the reputed author of all the sacred writings.

The magical words of power when written down by Taht became the nucleus of the Ritual, which is late in comparison with the astronomical mythology and other forms of Sign-language, and belongs mainly to the Osirian religion.

The mystical word of power from the first was female. Apt at Ombos was worshipped as the "the Living Word". The supreme type of this power borne upon the head of Shu is the hinder part of a lioness, her sign of sexual potency.

The thigh or khepsh of Apt is also the typical Ur-heka, and it is a symbol of the great magical power. The Ur-heka or magical sign preceded words, and words preceded the writings.

Great magical words of power are ascribed to Isis, whose word of power in the human sphere was personified in Horus the child, her word that issued out of silence.

This is the word that wvas made flesh in a mortal likeness, the soul derived from blood. Child-Horus, however, manifests in divers phenomena as the Word— of— Power emaned by Isis, in the water, in vegetation, in food, and lastly in the virgin mother's blood.

Horus the Word- of-Power was the founder, who was followed by Horus the Fulfiller. It is Horus the Word-of-Power personalized as a little child who survives as the miraculous worker two or three years old in the apocryphal gospels.

He is credited with doing these infantine marvels as the Word-of-Power in person. He also utters the word of power in performing his amazing miracles.

The magical words were orally communicated in the mysteries from mouth to ear, not written to be read. They were to be gotten by heart.

In the Book of the Dead memory is restored to the deceased through the words of power that were stored up in life to be remembered in death.

The speaker in chapter 90 says: That is, by virtue of the gnosis, memory was restored by the deceased remembering the divine words.

The origin of the doctrine is undoubtedly Egyptian, but it was made out by a perversion of the original teaching. This restoration of or through memory occurs to the Manes in Amenta after death, and the things remembered appertain to the past life on earth.

Plato has misapplied it to the past lives and pre-existence of human beings dwelling on the earth. The words of power were not only spoken.

They were likewise represented in the equipment of the mummy, sometimes called its ornaments, such as the word of salvation by the blood of Isis with the red Tet-buckle, the word of durability by the white stone, the word of resurrection by the scarabaeus, the word of eternal life by the cross, called the ankh.

These were forms of the magical words expressed in fetish figures. The Manes in Amenta begins his course where he left off on earth when his mouth was closed in death; it is opened once more for him by Ptah and Turn, and Taht supplies him with the great magical words of power that open every gate.

These were written on the roll of papyrus that is carried in his hand by the pilgrim who makes his progress through the nether regions in the subterranean pathway of the sun.

It was indeed the book of life and salvation, because it contained the things to be done in the life here and hereafter to ensure eternal continuity Rit.

The departing soul when passing away in death, or, as the truer phrase is, when setting into the land of life, clasps and clings to his roll for very life.

As the book of life, or word of salvation, it was buried in the coffin with the dead when done with on earth. It showed the way to heaven objectively as well as subjectively, as heaven was mapped out in the astral mythos.

The Manes enters Amenta with a papyrus roll in his hand corresponding to the one that was buried in his coffin.

This contains the written word of truth, the word of magical power, the word of life. The great question now for him is how far he has made the word of god Osiris truth and established it against the powers of evil in his lifetime on the earth.

The word that he carries with him was written by Taht- Aan, the scribe of truth. Another word has been written in his lifetime by himself, and the record will meet him in the Hall of Justice on the day of weighing words, when Taht will read the record of the life to see how far it tallies with the written word and how far he has fulfilled the word in truth to earn eternal life.

The questions confronting the Manes on entering Amenta are whether he has laid sufficient hold of life to live again in death?

Has he acquired consistency and strength or truth of character enough to persist in some other more permanent form of personality? Has he sufficient force to incorporate his soul anew and germinate and grow and burst the mummy bandages in the glorified body of the Sahu?

Is he a true mummy? Is the backbone sound? Is his heart in the right place? Has he planted for eternity in the seed- field of time?

Has he made the word of Osiris, the word that was written in the papyrus roll, truth against his enemies? The chapters for opening the Tuat, for dealing with the adversary in the nether world, for issuing forth victoriously and thus winning the crown of triumph, for removing displeasure from the heart of the judge, tend to show the ways of attaining the life everlasting by acquiring possession of an eternal soul.

The Manes is said to be made safe for the place of rebirth in Annu by means of the books of Taht's divine words, which contain the gnosis or knowledge of the things to be done on earth and in Amenta.

That is the only way of salvation or of safety for the soul, the only mode of becoming a true being who would endure as pure spirit forever.

The Egyptians had no vicarious atonement, no imputed righteousness, no second-hand salvation. No initiate in the Osirian mysteries could possibly have rested his hope of reaching heaven on the Galilean line to glory.

His was the more crucial way of Amenta, which the Manes had to tread with the guidance of the word, that step by step and act by act he must himself make true.

It is said in the rubrical directions of chapter 72 that the Manes who knew it on earth and had it written on his coffin will be able to go in and out by day under any form he chooses in which he can penetrate his dwelling-place and also make his way to the Aarru fields of peace and plenty, where he will be flourishing for ever even as he was on earth Rit.

I f chapter 91 is known, the Manes takes the form of a fully-equipped spirit a Khu in the nether world, and is not imprisoned at any door in Amenta either going in or coming out.

The book of giving sustenance to the spirit of the deceased in the under-world delivers the person from all evil things Rit. There was another book wherewith the spirits acquired strength by knowing the names of the gods of the southern sky and of the northern sky chs.

The Ritual was pre-eminently a book of knowledge or of wisdom, because it contained the gnosis of the mysteries. The Manes make their passage through Amenta by means of what they know.

Deceased in one of his supplications says: He knew because, as we see by ch. Knowledge was power, knowledge was the gnosis, and the gnosis was the science of the mystery teachers and the masters of Sign-language.

Ignorance was most dire and deadly. How could one travel in the next world any more than in this without knowing the way?

The way in Amenta was indicated topographically very much in keeping with the ways in Egypt, chief of which was the water-way of the great river.

Better still, if these instructions and divine teachings were learned by heart, had been enacted and the word made truth in the life, then the Book of the Dead if life became the book of life in death.

The word was given that it might be made truth by doing it as the means of learning the way by knowing the word.

The way of life in three worlds, those of earth, Amenta, and heaven, was by knowing the word of god and making it true in defiance of all the powers of evil.

According to this earlier Bible, death came into the world by ignorance, not by knowledge, as in the Christian travesty of the Egyptian teaching. The virtue of a soul is knowledge" [Divine Pymander, B.

There was no life for the soul except in knowing, and no salvation but in doing, the truth. The human soul of Neferuben in the picture is the wise or instructed soul, one of the Khu-Akaru: Knowledge is of the first importance.

In all his journeyings and difficulties it is necessary for the deceased to know. It is by knowledge that he is lighted to find his way in the dark.

Ignorance would leave him a prey to all sorts of liers in wait and cunning enemies. He triumphs continually through his knowledge of the way, like a traveller with his chart and previous acquaintanceship with the local language; hence the need of the gnosis and of initiation in the mysteries.

Those who knew the real name of the god were in possession of the word that represented power over the divinity, therefore the word of power that would be efficacious if employed.

Instead of calling on the name of god in prayer, they made use of the name as the word of god. And as these words and mysteries of magic were contained in the writings, it was necessary to know the writings in which the gnosis was religiously preserved to be in possession of the words of power.

Hence the phrases of great magical efficacy in the Ritual are called "the words that compel". They compel the favourable action of the super-human power to which appeal is made.

To make magic was to act the appeal in a language of signs which, like the words, were also intended to compel, and to act thus magically was a mode of compelling, forcing, and binding the superhuman powers.

Magic was also a mode of covenanting with the power apprehended in the elements. Giving blood for food was giving life for the means of living.

The Ritual opens with a resurrection, but this is the resurrection in the earth of Amenta, not in the heaven of eternity. It is the resurrection of a body-soul emerging in the similitude of the moon— god from the dark of death.

He has come as one of the powers that fight to secure the triumph of Osiris over all his adversaries. After the life on earth there was a resurrection in Amenta, the earth of eternity, for the human soul evolved on earth.

I t was there that the claim to the resurrection in spirit and to life eternal in heaven had to be made good and established by long and painful experiences and many kinds of purgatorial purification, by which the soul was perfected eventually as an ever-living spirit.

The word of promise had to be performed and made truth indeed, for the Ma— Kheru of immortality to be earned and endless continuity of life assured.

Emergence in Amenta was the coming forth of the human soul from the coffin and from the gloom of the grave in some form of personality such as is depicted in the Shade, or the Ba, a bird of soul with the human head, which shows that a human soul is signified.

Osiris the god of Amenta in a mummy form is thus addressed by the Osiris N. This is addressed to Osiris who lives eternally.

Though lying as a mummy in Amenta, breathless and without motion, he will be self-resuscitated to rise again.

Salvation is renewal for another life; to be saved is not to suffer the second death, not to die a second time. According to Egyptian thought, the saved are the living and the twice dead are the damned.

Life after death is salvation of the soul, and those not saved are those who die the second death - a fate that could not be escaped by any false belief in the merits of Horus or the efficacy of the atoning blood.

There was no heaven to be secured for them by proxy. The Ritual is not a book of beautiful sentiments, like the poetic literature of later times.

It is a record of the things done by the dramatis personae in the Karaite mysteries. Let the Tuat be opened for me. The speaker is in Amenta as a mummy soul appealing to the father of lights and lord of spirits that he may come forth in the character of Horus divinized to delight the soul of his poor mother.

He wishes to capitalize the desires of those who "make salutations" to the gods on his behalf. These in modern parlance would be the prayers of the priests and congregation ch.

In the chapter by which one cometh forth to day he pleads: Let me have possession of the table of offerings which was heapt for me on earth — the solicitations which were uttered for me, that he may feed upon the bread of Seb,' or the food of earth.

Let me have possession of my funeral meals", the meals offered on earth for the dead in the funerary chamber ch. His one all- absorbing interest is the resurrection to eternal life.

He says, "Let me reach the land of ages, let me gain the land of eternity, for thou, my Lord, hast destined them for me" ch. Osiris or the Osiris passed into Amenta as the lord of transformations.

Various changes of shape were necessitated by the various modes of progression. As a beetle or a serpent he passed through solid earth, as a crocodile through the water, as a hawk through the air.

As a jackal or a cat he saw in the dark; as an ibis he was the knowing one, or "he of the nose". Thus he was the master of transformations, the magician of the later folk-tales, who could change his shape at will.

Taht is termed the great magician as the lord of transformations in the moon. Thus the deceased in assuming the type of Taht becomes a master of transformation or the magician whose transformations had also been made on earth by the transformers in trance who pointed the way to transformation in death.

When Teta comes to consciousness on rising again in Amenta he is said to have broken his sleep for ever which was in the dwelling of Seb - that is, on the earth.

He has now received his Sahu or investiture of the glorious body. He is divinized in the likeness of various divinities, all of whom had been included as powers in the person of the one true god, Neb-er-ter, the lord entire.

Every member and part of the Manes in Amenta has to be fashioned afresh in a new creation. The new heart is said to be shaped by certain gods in the nether world, according to the deeds done in the body whilst the person was living on the earth.

He assumes the glorified body that is formed feature by feature and limb after limb in the likeness of the gods until there is no part of the Manes that remains undivinized.

He is given the hair of Nu, or heaven, the eyes of Hathor, ears of Apuat, nose of Khenti-Kas, lips of Anup, teeth of Serk, neck of Isis, hands of the mighty lord of Tat tu, shoulders of Neith, back of Sut, phallus of Osiris, legs and thighs of Nut, feet of Ptah, with nails and bones of the living Uraei, until there is not a limb of him that is without a god.

There is no possibility of coming back to earth for a new body or for a re— entry into the old mummy. As the Manes says, his "soul is not bound to his old body at the gates of Amenta" ch.

Chapter 89 is designated the chapter by which the soul is united to the body. This, however, does not mean the dead body on earth, but the format or bodily type of the mummy in Amenta.

Let me have the feet of the glorified" ch. At this stage he exclaims, "I am a soul, and my soul is divine.

It is the eternal force". In chapters 21 and 22 the Manes asks for his mouth, that he may speak with it.

Having his mouth restored, he asks that it may be opened by Ptah, and that Taht may loosen the fetters or muzzles of Sut, the power of darkness ch.

In short,' that he may recover the faculty of speech. In the process of transforming and being renewed as the new man, the second Atum, he says, "I am Khepera, the self-produced upon his mother's thigh".

Khepera is the beetle— type of the sun that is portrayed in pictures of the goddess Nut proceeding from the mother's khepsh.

The name of the beetle signifies becoming and evolving, hence it is a type of the becomer in making his transformation. The mouth being given, words of power are brought to him, he also gathers them from every quarter.

Then he remembers his name. Next the new heart is given to him. His jaws are parted, his eyes are opened.

Power is given to his arms and vigour to his legs. He is in possession of his heart, his mouth, his eyes, his limbs, and his speech. He looks forward to being fed upon the food of Osiris in Aarru, on the eastern side of the mead of amaranthine flowers.

In one phase of the drama the deceased is put together bone by bone in correspondence to the backbone of Osiris. The backbone was an emblem of sustaining power, and this reconstruction of deceased is in the likeness of the mutilated god.

The speaker at this point says, "The four fastenings of the hinder part of my head are made firm". He does not fall at the block. There are of course seven cervical vertebrae in the backbone altogether, but three of these are peculiar, " the atlas which supports the head, the axis upon which the head turns, and the vertebrae prominens, with its long spiral process" ch.

No doubt the Osiris was rebuilt upon this model, and the four joints were fundamental, they constituted a four-fold foundation.

In another passage the Osiris is apparently perfected "upon the square", as in the Masonic mysteries. It is the chapter by which one assumes the form of Ptah, the great architect of the universe.

The speaker says, "He is four times the arm's length of Ra, four times the width of the world" Rit. There were seven primary powers in the mythical and astronomical phases, six of whom are represented by zootypes, and the seventh is imaged in the likeness of a man.

This is repeated in the eschatology, where the highest soul of seven is the Ka-eidolon with a human face and figure as the final type of spirit which was human on the earth and is to be eternal in the heavens.

The Manes who is being reconstituted says, "The [seven] Uraeus divinities are my body. My image is eternal" ch.

The seven Uraeus divinities represented the seven souls of life that were anterior to the one enduring soul. In the chapter of propitiating one's own Ka the Manes says, "Hail to thee, my Ka!

May I come to thee and be glorified and made manifest and ensouled? Io3 -that is, in attaining the highest of the souls, the unifying one. These souls may be conceived as seven ascending types of personality.

The first is figured as the shade, the dark soul or shade of the Inoits, the Greenlanders, and other aboriginal races, which is portrayed personally in the Ritual lying darkly on the ground.

The shade was primary, because of its being, as it were, a shadow of the old body projected 38 of Egyptian Book of the Dead and the Mysteries of Amenta on the ground in the new life.

It is portrayed as a black figure stretched out in Amenta. In this way the earth shadow of the body in life served as the type of a soul that passed out of the body in death.

This may explain the intimate relationship of the shade to the physical mummy, which it is sometimes said to cling to and remain with in the tomb, and to draw sustenance from the corpse so long as it exists.

Thus the shade that draws life from the dead body becomes the mythical prototype of the vampire and the legendary ghoul. It may be difficult to determine exactly what the Egyptians understood by the khabit or shade in its genesis as a soul, but the Inoit or Aleutians describe it as "a vapour emanating from the blood" and here is wisdom for those who comprehend it.

The earliest human soul, derived from the mother when the blood was looked upon as the life, was a soul of blood, and the Inoit description answers perfectly to the shade in the Egyptian Amenta.

Amongst the most primitive races the typical basis of a future personality is the shade. The Aleutians say the soul at its departure divides into the shade and the spirit.

The first dwells in the tomb, the other ascends to the firmament. These, wherever met with, are equivalent to the twin- souls of Sut the dark one, and Horus the soul of light.

The soul as shade or shadow is known to the Macusi Indians as the "man in the eyes" who "does not die".

This is another form of the shadow that was not cast upon the ground. Birch drew attention to the fact that whilst the deceased has but one Ba, one Sahu, and one Ka, he has two shades, his Khabti being in the plural [Trans.

These two correspond to the dark and light shades of the aborigines. They also conform to the two souls of darkness and light that were imaged by the black vulture and the golden hawk of Sut and Horus, the first two of the total septenary of powers or souls.

The shade, however, is but one-seventh of the series. The other self when perfected consists of seven amalgamated souls.

Some of the Manes in Amenta do not get beyond the state of the shade or Khabit; they are arrested in this condition of mummied immobility.

They do not acquire the new heart or soul of breath; they remain in the egg unhatched, and do not become the Ba-soul or the glorified Khu.

These are the souls that are said to be eaten by certain of the gods or infernal powers. The "shells" of the theosophists may be met with in the Ritual.

The Manes who is fortified with his divine soul can pass this place in safety. He says, "Let no one take possession of my shade [let no one take possession of my shell or envelope].

I am the divine hawk". He has issued from the shell of the egg and been established beyond the status of the shade as a Ba-soul. With this may be compared the superstition that in eating eggs one should always break up the empty shell, lest it should be made evil use of by the witches.

There are wretched shades condemned to immobility in the fifth of the mystical abodes. They suffer their final arrest in that place and position, and are then devoured by the giants who live as eaters of the shades.

These monsters are described as having thigh-bones seven cubits long ch. No mere shade has power enough to pass by these personifications of devouring might; they are the ogres of legendary lore, who may be found at home with the ghoul and the vampire in the dark caverns of the Egyptian under world.

In its next stage the soul is called a Ba, and is represented as a hawk with a human head, to show that the nature of the soul is human still.

This is more than a soul of shade, but it was not imagined nor believed that the human soul as such inhabited the body of a bird.

In one of the hells the shades are seen burning, but these were able to resist the fire, and it is consequently said, "The shades live; they have raised their powers".

They are raised in status by assimilating higher powers. Following his taking possession of the soul of shade and the soul of light the Osiris is given a new heart, his whole or two— fold heart.

With some of the primitive folk, as with the Basutos, it is the heart that goes out in death as the soul that never dies.

Bobadilla a learned from the Indians of Nicaragua that there are two different hearts; that one of these went away with the deceased in death, and that it was the heart that went away which "made them live" hereafter.

This other breathing heart, the basis of the future being, is one with the Egyptian heart by which the reconstituted person lives again.

The heart that was weighed in the Hall of Judgment could not have been the organ of life on earth. This was a second heart, the heart of another life.

The second is the heart that was fashioned anew according to the life lived in the body. It is said to be the heart of the great god Tehuti, who personated intelligence.

Therefore it would seem to typify the soul of intelligence. Hence it is said to be young and keen of insight among the gods, or among the seven souls.

The physical representation comes first, but it is said in the text of Panchemisis, "The conscience or heart Ab of a man is his own god" or divine judge.

The new heart represents rebirth, and is therefore called the mother ch. Now if we take the shade to image a soul of blood, the Ba-hawk to image a soul of light, and the hati- heart to represent a soul of breath, we can perceive a raison d' etre for the offering of blood, of lights, and of incense as sacrifices to the Manes in three different phases or states.

Blood was generally offered to the shades, as we see in survival among the Greeks and Romans. The Sekhem was one of the souls or powers. It is difficult to identify this with a type and place in the seven.

Pro tern we call it fourth of the series. It is more important to know what force it represents. The name is derived from the word khem, for potency.

Khem in physics signifies erectile power. The man of thirty years as typical adult is khemt. Sekhem denotes having the power or potency of the erectile force.

In the eschatological phase it is the reproducing, formative power of Khem, or Amsu, to re-erect, the power of erection being applied to the spirit in fashioning and vitalizing the new and glorious body for the future resurrection from Amenta.

The Khu is a soul in which the person has attained the status of the pure in spirit called the glorified, represented in the likeness of a beautiful white bird; the Ka is a type of eternal duration in which the seven— fold personality is unified at last for permanent or everlasting life.

It is the Khu that is thus addressed in the tomb as the glorified one: It is heaven only that shall hold thee".

The shade of itself could never leave the tomb. But here the tomb, the mummy, and the shade are not on earth; they are in Amenta.

Without the Ba-soul, the shade remains unvivified. Without the Sekhem, it lacks essential form or power of re— arising.

Without the Khu— spirit the person does not ascend from the sepulchre or prison-house of the nether world.

But when this has been attained the deceased is glorified. If chapter 91 is known, "he taketh the form of a fully- equipped Khu [spirit] in the nether world, and does not suffer imprisonment at any door in Amenta, either in coming in or going out" Renouf, ch.

It is only when the Manes is invested as a Khu that he ascends to the father as a son of god. So we gather from the following words addressed to Horus by the person who is now a Khu: I come, and am glorified and filled with soul and power, and am provided with the scriptures of Taht", his copy of the book of life, his light in the darkness of Amenta.

He now ascends to Ra his father, who is in the bark, and exclaims again and again, "I am a powerful Khu; let thy soundness be my soundness" Renouf, ch.

Likewise the "house of him who is upon the hill", and who is "ruler in the divine hall". The great house is the heaven of Osiris based upon the thirty-six gates or duo-decans of the zodiac.

The other is the house of Anup at the summit of the mount in Annu. When the Manes has become a Khu, the Ka is still a typical ideal ahead of him; so far ahead or aloof that he propitiates it with offerings.

In fact, he presents himself as the sacrificial victim that would die to attain conjunction with his Ka, his image of eternal duration, his type of totality, in which the seven souls were permanently unified in one at last.

The Ka has been called the double of the dead, as if it simply represented the Doppel— ganger. But it is not merely a phantom of the living or personal image of the departed.

It serves also for the apparition or revenant ; it is a type rather than a portrait. It is a type that was pre-natal.

Hence it is absorbed at last in the perfected personality. The Ka of the royal infant is shown in the pictures being formed by Khnum the moulder on the potter's wheel.

It is in attendance on the person all life through, as the genius or guardian angel, and the fulfilment of the personality is effected by a final reunion with the Ka.

As already shown, when divine honours were paid to the Pharaoh the offerings were made to his Ka, not to his mortal self. Thus the Manes in Amenta makes an offering of incense to purify himself in propitiation of his Ka ch.

There is a chapter of "providing food for the Ka". Also the mortuary meal was eaten in the chamber of the Ka, the resurrection chamber of the sepulchre.

Food was offered to the Ka-eidolon as the representative of the departed, instead of directly to the spirits of the ancestors. It was set up there as receiver— general of the offerings.

Also the food was presented to it as a type of the divine food which sustained the human soul. Thus, when the divine sustenance is offered by the god or goddess to the soul of the mortal on the earth, or to the Manes in Amenta, it is presented by the giver to the Ka.

This is because the Ka was the type of personality, seventh of the seven souls attained as the highest in which the others were to be included and absorbed.

In the vignettes to chapter 25 of the Ritual Naville, Todt. Showing the Ka to him enables the Manes to recall his name in the great house, and especially in the crucible of the house of flame.

When the deceased is far advanced on his journey through Amenta, his Ka is still accompanying him, and it is described as being the food of his life in spirit world, even as it had been his spiritual food in the human life.

Thou feedest thyself under thy name of Ka" ,6. When the Osiris has passed from the state of a shade to the stage of the Ka, he will become what the Ritual designates a fully equipped Manes who has completed his investiture.

As a Sahu he was reincorporated in a spiritual body. As a Khu he was invested with a robe of glory. It was here he exclaimed "Behold me; I am come to you [the gods and the glorified], and have carried off my forms and united them".

But in chapter 92 he was anxiously looking forward to the day of reckoning, when he said, "Let the way be open to my soul and my shade, that I may see the great god within his sanctuary on the day of the soul's reckoning", "when all hearts and words are weighed".

He is not yet one of the spirits made perfect, being neither judged nor justified. He has to pass his last examination, and is now approaching the great hall of judgment for his trial.

He says, "I am come that I may secure my suit in Abydos", the mythical re: This is the final trial of the long series through which he has hitherto, successfully passed Rit, ch.

He has now arrived at the judgment hall. It has been asserted that the deeds which the deceased had done here on earth in no wise influenced the fate that awaited the man after death Maspero, Egyptian Archaeology.

But how so, when the new heart which was given to the deceased in Amenta, where he or she was reconstituted, is said to be fashioned in accordance with what he has done in his human life?

He is anxious that the ministrants of Osiris in the Neter— Kar, "who deal with a man according to the course of his life", may not give a bad odour to his name ch.

It is plainly apparent that the future fate of the soul was dependent on the deeds that were done in the body, and the character of the deceased was accreted according to his conduct in the life on earth.

The jury sitting in the judgment hall consisted of forty-two masters of truth. Their duty was to discover the truth with fierce interrogation and the instinct of sleuth-hounds on their track.

Was this Manes a true man? Had he lived a true life? Was he true at heart when this was tested in the scales? His viscera were present for inspection, and these keen scrutinizers in their animal— headed forms were very terrible, not only in visage, for they had a vested interest in securing a verdict of guilty against the Manes, inasmuch as the viscera of the condemned were flung to them as perquisites and prey, therefore they searched with the zeal of hunger for the evidence of evil living that might be found written on this record of the inner man.

The highest verdict rendered by the great judge in this most awful Judgment Hall was a testimony to the truth and purity of character established for the Manes on evidence that was unimpeachable.

At this post- mortem the sins done in the body through violating the law of nature were probed for most profoundly.

Not only was the deceased present in spirit to be judged at the dread tribunal, the book of the body was opened and its record read.

The vital organs, such as the heart, liver, and lungs, were brought into judgment as witnesses to the life lived on earth.

Any part too vitiated for the rottenness to be cut off or scraped away was condemned and flung as offal to the powers who are called the eaters of filth, the devourers of hearts, and drinkers of the blood of the wicked.

And if the heart, for example, should be condemned to be devoured because very bad, the individual could not be reconstructed for a future life.

In order that the Osiris may pass the Great Assize as one of the justified, he must have made the word of Osiris truth on earth against his enemies.

In coming to the Hall of Judgment or Justice to look on the divine countenance and be cleansed from all the sins he may have committed he says, "I have come to thee, O my Lord.

Lord of Righteousness is thy name. I bring to thee right. I have put a stop to wrong". His plea is that he has done his best to fulfil the character of Horus— Makheru.

Some of his pleas are very touching. He has not snatched the milk from the mouths of babes and sucklings. He has not been a land-grabber.

He has not dammed the running water. He has caused no famine, no weeping, no suffering to men, and has not been a robber of food.

He has not tampered with the tongue of the balance, nor been fraudulent, mean, or sordid of soul. There is a goodly list of pre- Christian virtues besides all the theoretical Christian ones.

Amongst others, he says, "I have propitiated the god with that which he'loveth". This was especially by the offering of Maat, viz.

He asks the forty-two assessors for the great judge not to go against him, for he did the right thing in Tamerit, the land of Egypt.

His heart is weighed in the scales of justice. He passes pure, as one of those who are welcomed by Horus for his own faithful followers, the blessed of his father, to whom it is said, "Come, come in peace".

Horus the intercessor, advocate, or paraclete, now takes him by the hand and leads him into the presence of Osiris in the sanctuary.

But when he kneels before Osiris on the throne his hair is white. He has passed as one of the purified and is on his way to join the ranks of the just spirits made perfect, who are called the glorified.

The attendants say to him, "We put an end to thy ills and we remove that which is disorderly in thee through thy being smitten to the earth" in death.

These were the ills of mortality from which he has now been freed in spirit. Here occurs the resurrection of the Osiris in the person of Horus, and it is said, "Ha, Osiris 1 thou hast come, and thy Ka with thee, which uniteth with thee in thy name of Ka— hetep" ch.

In the book or papyrus— roll for invoking the gods of the Kerti, or boundaries, we find the speaker has now reached the limit of Amenta.

He says, "I am the soul of Osiris, and rest in him" ch. He is hailed as one who has attained his Ka and received his insignia of the resurrection.

It is now said to the Osiris, "Ha, Osiris! The sceptre was the hare-headed symbol of the resurrection first carried by Ptah the opener.

The pedestal is the papyrus of Horus, and the stairs denote the means of ascent from Amenta to the summit of the Mount of Glory. He is now prepared and empowered to enter the bark of Ra which voyages from east to west by day and from west to east by night.

Before entering the bark the Osiris has attained to everyone of his stations in Amenta previously to sailing for the circumpolar paradise upon the stellar Mount of Glory.

Chapter is the book by which the soul is made to live for ever on the day of entering the bark of Ra, which means that it contains the gnosis of the subject.

It was made for the birthday or re-birthday of Osiris. Hence the speaker says, in this character, "I am coffined in an ark like Horus, to whom his cradle [or nest of reeds] is brought".

He is reborn as Horus on his papyrus, an earlier figure on the water than the bark of Ra. He prays, "Let not the Osiris be shipwrecked on the great voyage; keep the steering tackle free from misadventure".

When he entered Amenta the deceased in Osiris bore the likeness of the god in mummy form. Before he comes forth from the lower Aarru garden he can say, at the end of certain transformations in type and personality, "I am the soul of Osiris, and I rest in him" ch.

This is in the character of Horus. He has reached the boundary, and now invokes the god who is in his solar disk, otherwise in the bark of Ra.

He died in Osiris to live again in Horus, son of god, or in his likeness. Chapters and begin the book of making the Osiris perfect.

And this, as the Ritual shows, was in the likeness of Horus the beloved sole- begotten son of Ra, the god in spirit. Now, when the Manes had included his Ka in the name of Ka-hetep Rit.

This corroborates the suggestion that the ka-type was derived from Ka later Sa the son of Atum-Ra, who was earlier than Horus as the son of Osiris.

Thus the divine sonship of humanity which was personified in Horus, or Iu, or Sa, was also typified in the ka-image of a higher spiritual self; and when the Manes had attained the status of a spirit perfected it was in the form of the divine son who was the express image of the father god.

He was Horus the beloved, in all reality, through perfecting the ideal type in his own personality. He now enters the divine presence of Osiris— Ra to relate what he has done in the characters of human Horus, Har— Tema, and Har— Makheru on behalf of his father which constitutes him the veritable son of god.

When the Manes had attained the solar bark he has put on "the divine body of Ra" and is hailed by the ministrants with cries of welcome and acclamations from the Mount of Glory ch.

In travelling through the under-world he had passed from the western horizon of earth to the east of heaven, where he joins the solar boat to voyage the celestial waters.

There is a change of boat for the night. Hence the speaker says he is "coming in the two barks of the lord of Sau" ch.

This was the sub-terrestrial or earthly paradise of the legends. When the Manes comes to these elysian fields he is still in the earth of eternity, and has to prove himself an equal as a worker with the mighty Khus Khuti , who are nine cubits high, in cultivating his allotment of arable land.

The arrival at Mount Hetep in this lower paradise or heaven of the solar mythos precedes the entrance to the Judgment Hall which is in the domain of the Osiris below, and the voyage from east to west in the Matit and the Sektit bark of the sun, therefore it is not in the ultimate heaven or the upper paradise of eternity upon Mount Hetep.

We see from the Pyramid texts Pepi I. King Pepi salutes the two: Set thyself up, O ladder of God. Set thyself up, O ladder of Sut.

The Manes also says, in ch. But, having traced the reconstruction of the deceased for a future life, we now return, to follow him once more from the entrance to Amenta on his journey through the under— world.

His mortal personality having been made a permanent as possible in the mummy left on earth, the Manes rising in Amenta now sets out to attain the personality that is to last for ever.

He pleads with all his dumbness that his mouth may be opened, or, in other words, that his memory, which he has lost awhile, may be given back to him, so that he may utter the words of power chs.

The ceremony of opening the mouth after the silence of death was one of the profoundest secrets. The great type of power by means of which the mouth is opened was the leg of the hippopotamus goddess, the symbol of her mightiness as primum mobile in the Great Bear having been adopted for this purpose in the eschatology.

The ceremony was performed at the tomb as well as in Amenta by the opener Ptah as a mystery of the resurrection. The Osiris also prays that when his mouth is opened Taht may come to him equipped with the words of power.

So soon as the mouth of the Manes is freed from the fetters of dumbness and darkness or muzzles of Sut and restored to him, he collects the words of power from all quarters more persistently than any sleuth— hound and more swiftly than the flash of light chs.

These words of power are magical in their effect. They paralyze all opposition. They open every door. The power is at once applied. The speaker says, "Back, in retreat 1 Back, crocodile Sui!

Come not against me, who live by the words of power! This is spoken to the crocodiles or dragons who come to rob the Manes and carry off the words of power that protect the deceased in death.

The magical mode of employing the words of power in the mysteries of Taht is by the deceased being assimilated to the character and assuming the superhuman type as a means of protection against the powers of evil.

He is the deity pro tern. It is the god who is the power, and the magician employs the words and signs which express that power; but instead of praying to the god he makes use of the divine words attributed to the god, and personates the god as Horus or Ra, Taht or Osiris, in character.

He puts on the mask of a crocodile, an ibis, a lion, or other zootype of the primary powers, and says to his adversaries: He tells the serpent Abur that he is the divine babe, the mighty one.

Not a limb of him is without a god. He is not to be grasped by arms or seized by hands. According to the magical prescriptions, in fighting the devil, or the evil Apap, a figure of the monster was to be moulded in wax with the name inscribed upon it in green Budge, Proceedings Soc.

This was to be spat upon many times, spurned with the foot, and then flung into the fire, as a magical mode of casting out the devil. When the Apap reptile is first encountered and addressed in the Ritual it is said, "O one of wax!

This is because the presence of the devouring monster is made tangible by the image of wax which represents the power addressed, that is otherwise invisible.

The ideal becomes concrete in the figure that is thus magically employed. It is in this magical sense that the opening chapters of the Ritual are declared to contain the "words of power" that bring about the resurrection and the glory of the Manes in Amenta.

This mode of magic is likewise a mode of hypnotism or human magnetism which was universally common with the primitive races, especially the African, but which is only now being timidly touched by modern science.

Hypnotic power is magical power. This is described as being taken from the serpent as its strength. In one passage Rit v ch.

And previously, in the same chapter, the speaker says to the serpent, "I am the man who covers thy head with darkness, and I am the great magician.

Thine eyes have been given to me, and I am glorified through them. Thy strength [or power] is in my grasp". This might be termed a lesson in hypnotism.

The speaker becomes a great magician by taking possession of the paralyzing power in the eyes of the serpent. The description seems to imply that there had been a contest betwixt the serpent-charmer and the serpent, and that the man had conquered by wresting the magical power from the reptile.

The Manes has much to say about the adversary of souls whom he meets in Amenta. This is the Apap of darkness, of drought and dearth, disease and death.

It is the representative of evil in physical phenomena which was translated as a figure from the mythology into the domain of eschatology.

In chapter 32 the "Osiris standeth up upon his feet" to face and defy the crocodiles of darkness who devour the dead and carry off the words of power from the glorified in the under-world.

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